TRANSLATION / INTERPRETING

TRANSLATION / INTERPRETING

Language interpretation is the facilitating of oral or sign-language communication, either simultaneously or consecutively, between users of different languages. The process is described by both the words interpreting and interpretation. Translation studies deal with the systematic study of the theory, the description and the application of language interpretation and translation. Interpreting is an explanation of something that is not immediately obvious; “the edict was subject to many interpretations”.

In professional parlance, interpreting denotes the facilitating of communication from one language form into its equivalent, or approximate equivalent, in another language form; while interpretation denotes the actual product of this work, that is, the message thus rendered into speech, sign language, writing, non-manual signals, or other language form. This important distinction is observed in order to avoid confusion. Interpreting takes a message from a source language and renders that message into a different target language (ex: English into French). In interpreting, the interpreter will take in a complex concept from one language, choose the most appropriate vocabulary in the target language to faithfully render the message in a linguistically, emotionally, tonally, and culturally equivalent message. Translation is the transference of meaning from text to text (written or recorded), with the translator having time and access to resources (dictionaries, glossaries, etc.)

An interpreter is a person who converts a thought or expression in a source language into an expression with a comparable meaning in a target language either simultaneously in “real time” or consecutively after one party has finished speaking. The interpreter’s function is to convey every semantic element (tone and register) and every intention and feeling of the message that the source-language speaker is directing to target-language recipients.

2.1 Consecutive Interpreting

a. Definition of consecutive

Consecutive Interpreting is the most popular type of interpreting as it does not require any specialist equipment or complex planning. It is also considerably cheaper than Simultaneous Interpreting. It is also considerably cheaper than Simultaneous Interpreting. Less demanding than Simultaneous Interpreting, the speaker delivers a few sentences and then pauses whilst your interpreter repeats what has just been said in the target language. The interpreter may interpret for the whole group or, as is becoming increasingly common, sit next to an individual and whisper what has just been said. The main differences between Consecutive Interpreting and Simultaneous Interpreting are that specialist equipment is not required and the interpreting is not real-time. Consecutive interpretation means that the interpreter takes notes while the speaker is talking – although the speaking time should not exceed 15 minutes. After the speaker has finished his or her contribution, the interpreter will render this part of the speech in the other language.

Apart from a notepad, a pen and, if applicable, a microphone, no technical equipment is needed for consecutive interpretation. This mode of interpreting can be used, for example, for negotiations or receptions where the conference host does not want to set up an interpreting booth.

Besides, Consecutive interpreters wait for the speaker to pause before interpreting. The interpreter may interpret after every sentence, or may take notes and then interpret several minutes of speech at once. Consecutive interpreters are bilingual by definition but just being bilingual isn’t enough. Professional interpreters invest years in training and practice to reach the standards we require. Consecutive interpreting is most needed for:

–  Press conferences

– Product and service presentations

–  Diplomatic meetings

2.2 Simultaneous Interpreting

  1. Definition of Simultaneous

Simultaneous interpreters render one spoken language into another instantly. They interpret what the speaker is saying while they are saying it, allowing multi-lingual conferences to flow as smoothly and quickly as if they were in a single language.  Simultaneous interpreters are sometimes called UN-style interpreters, conference interpreters or simultaneous translators. They are bilingual by definition but just being bilingual isn’t enough. Professional interpreters invest years in training and practice to reach the standards we require.

In simultaneous interpretation (SI), the interpreter renders the message in the target-language as quickly as he or she can formulate it from the source language, while the source-language speaker continuously speaks; an oral-language SI interpreter, sitting in a sound-proof booth, speaks into a microphone, while clearly seeing and hearing the source-language speaker via earphones. The simultaneous interpretation is rendered to the target-language listeners via their earphones. Moreover, SI is the common mode used by sign language interpreters, although the person using the source language, the interpreter and the target language recipient (since either the hearing person or the deaf person may be delivering the message) must necessarily be in close proximity. Simultaneous interpreting is most needed for:

–  Seminars

–  Meetings

–  Diplomatic proceedings

–  Legal settings (trials)

–  Conferences

–  Courses

–  Congresses

2.3 Liaison Interpreting

  1. Definition of Liaison

Liaison interpreting is a very common form of interpreting and takes place in a range of different situations ranging from very formal contexts, such as business or talks between heads of state to less formal situations such as work visits, parties or even casual conversation between people who do not share the same language.

Besides, Liaison interpreting is a facilitation work. The interpreter finds for each situation the best way to establish fluid and harmonious communication between the parties. Sensibility, perception, top-notch communication and interpersonal skills are paramount to a quality liaison, greatly contributing to the parties’ fruitful negotiation. Liaison interpreting involves relaying what is spoken to one, between two, or among many people. This can be done after a short speech, or consecutively, sentence-by-sentence, or as a whispering; aside from notes taken at the time, no equipment is used.

The liaison interpreter has access only to a partial view of texture and structure, both of which would be unfolding piece meal in the two way exchange. In this case, context would seem to be the main resource which the interpreter draws on in the task of maintaining the continuity of the exchange. (Hatim and Mason, 1997:41). Liaison interpreting is most needed for:

-Business meetings

–  Business trips

–  Meetings and visits

–  Trade fairs

–  Interviews

–  Notaries, Law Courts, Police Stations, Lawyers Offices

2.4 The differences of Consecutive, Simultaneous and Liaison

  1. Liaison

A liaison interpreter acts as an intermediary between two people, or small groups of people, who speak different languages and who often come from different cultures. The interpreter must be familiar with the subject being discussed. It is rather a spontaneous and flexible type of interpreting used to facilitate communication.

Unlike consecutive interpreting, the speaker during liaison interpretation uses short phrases or sentences. This means that he must take breaks long enough for the interpreter to provide translation in targeted language without notes and without the risk of omitting any details or distorting the meaning of the primary information.

Due to the high level of accuracy and the conditions of liaison interpreting it is mostly used everywhere, where high attention to details is required, for example in court during the hearing of witnesses or experts and wherever it is difficult to take notes or where the speech is accompanied by a presentation. It can be also useful during legal consultation, guest relations and business or diplomatic meetings.

2. Simultaneous

Simultaneous interpreting, as the name would suggest, occurs in close time proximity to the speech of the original speaker. It is provided continuously and in a smooth and consistent flow. Simultaneous interpreting, also sometimes referred to as conference interpreting, requires specialized equipment (headsets or earpieces for the audience) as well as control units and soundproof booths for the interpreters. This is the form of interpreting used at the UN and most international organizations as well as most major international conferences and business meetings.

Simultaneous interpretation is normally used at multi-lingual conferences. It is important to know that simultaneous interpretation is so strenuous that no interpreter should work for more than 30 minutes in one go. This means that simultaneous interpreters always work in teams of two, or, depending on the length of the conference and the complexity of the topic, three colleagues.

3. Consecutive

Consecutive interpreting is employed mainly during meetings between reduced numbers of participants. Without headphones, the consecutive interpreter takes notes and interprets the speakers’ orations when the speaker finishes speaking or pauses. In consecutive interpreting, speeches, or parts of them, may vary between five to twenty minutes. Consecutive interpretation means that the interpreter takes notes while the speaker is talking – although the speaking time should not exceed 15 minutes. After the speaker has finished his or her contribution, the interpreter will render this part of the speech in the other language.

Apart from a notepad, a pen and, if applicable, a microphone, no technical equipment is needed for consecutive interpretation. This mode of interpreting can be used, for example, for negotiations or receptions where the conference host does not want to set up an interpreting booth.

2.5 The Similarities of Consecutive, Simultaneous and Liaison

There are three modes of interpreting translation such as, Consecutive, Simultaneous and Liaison

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