TRANSLATION / INTERPRETING

TRANSLATION / INTERPRETING

Language interpretation is the facilitating of oral or sign-language communication, either simultaneously or consecutively, between users of different languages. The process is described by both the words interpreting and interpretation. Translation studies deal with the systematic study of the theory, the description and the application of language interpretation and translation. Interpreting is an explanation of something that is not immediately obvious; “the edict was subject to many interpretations”.

In professional parlance, interpreting denotes the facilitating of communication from one language form into its equivalent, or approximate equivalent, in another language form; while interpretation denotes the actual product of this work, that is, the message thus rendered into speech, sign language, writing, non-manual signals, or other language form. This important distinction is observed in order to avoid confusion. Interpreting takes a message from a source language and renders that message into a different target language (ex: English into French). In interpreting, the interpreter will take in a complex concept from one language, choose the most appropriate vocabulary in the target language to faithfully render the message in a linguistically, emotionally, tonally, and culturally equivalent message. Translation is the transference of meaning from text to text (written or recorded), with the translator having time and access to resources (dictionaries, glossaries, etc.)

An interpreter is a person who converts a thought or expression in a source language into an expression with a comparable meaning in a target language either simultaneously in “real time” or consecutively after one party has finished speaking. The interpreter’s function is to convey every semantic element (tone and register) and every intention and feeling of the message that the source-language speaker is directing to target-language recipients.

2.1 Consecutive Interpreting

a. Definition of consecutive

Consecutive Interpreting is the most popular type of interpreting as it does not require any specialist equipment or complex planning. It is also considerably cheaper than Simultaneous Interpreting. It is also considerably cheaper than Simultaneous Interpreting. Less demanding than Simultaneous Interpreting, the speaker delivers a few sentences and then pauses whilst your interpreter repeats what has just been said in the target language. The interpreter may interpret for the whole group or, as is becoming increasingly common, sit next to an individual and whisper what has just been said. The main differences between Consecutive Interpreting and Simultaneous Interpreting are that specialist equipment is not required and the interpreting is not real-time. Consecutive interpretation means that the interpreter takes notes while the speaker is talking – although the speaking time should not exceed 15 minutes. After the speaker has finished his or her contribution, the interpreter will render this part of the speech in the other language.

Apart from a notepad, a pen and, if applicable, a microphone, no technical equipment is needed for consecutive interpretation. This mode of interpreting can be used, for example, for negotiations or receptions where the conference host does not want to set up an interpreting booth.

Besides, Consecutive interpreters wait for the speaker to pause before interpreting. The interpreter may interpret after every sentence, or may take notes and then interpret several minutes of speech at once. Consecutive interpreters are bilingual by definition but just being bilingual isn’t enough. Professional interpreters invest years in training and practice to reach the standards we require. Consecutive interpreting is most needed for:

–  Press conferences

– Product and service presentations

–  Diplomatic meetings

2.2 Simultaneous Interpreting

  1. Definition of Simultaneous

Simultaneous interpreters render one spoken language into another instantly. They interpret what the speaker is saying while they are saying it, allowing multi-lingual conferences to flow as smoothly and quickly as if they were in a single language.  Simultaneous interpreters are sometimes called UN-style interpreters, conference interpreters or simultaneous translators. They are bilingual by definition but just being bilingual isn’t enough. Professional interpreters invest years in training and practice to reach the standards we require.

In simultaneous interpretation (SI), the interpreter renders the message in the target-language as quickly as he or she can formulate it from the source language, while the source-language speaker continuously speaks; an oral-language SI interpreter, sitting in a sound-proof booth, speaks into a microphone, while clearly seeing and hearing the source-language speaker via earphones. The simultaneous interpretation is rendered to the target-language listeners via their earphones. Moreover, SI is the common mode used by sign language interpreters, although the person using the source language, the interpreter and the target language recipient (since either the hearing person or the deaf person may be delivering the message) must necessarily be in close proximity. Simultaneous interpreting is most needed for:

–  Seminars

–  Meetings

–  Diplomatic proceedings

–  Legal settings (trials)

–  Conferences

–  Courses

–  Congresses

2.3 Liaison Interpreting

  1. Definition of Liaison

Liaison interpreting is a very common form of interpreting and takes place in a range of different situations ranging from very formal contexts, such as business or talks between heads of state to less formal situations such as work visits, parties or even casual conversation between people who do not share the same language.

Besides, Liaison interpreting is a facilitation work. The interpreter finds for each situation the best way to establish fluid and harmonious communication between the parties. Sensibility, perception, top-notch communication and interpersonal skills are paramount to a quality liaison, greatly contributing to the parties’ fruitful negotiation. Liaison interpreting involves relaying what is spoken to one, between two, or among many people. This can be done after a short speech, or consecutively, sentence-by-sentence, or as a whispering; aside from notes taken at the time, no equipment is used.

The liaison interpreter has access only to a partial view of texture and structure, both of which would be unfolding piece meal in the two way exchange. In this case, context would seem to be the main resource which the interpreter draws on in the task of maintaining the continuity of the exchange. (Hatim and Mason, 1997:41). Liaison interpreting is most needed for:

-Business meetings

–  Business trips

–  Meetings and visits

–  Trade fairs

–  Interviews

–  Notaries, Law Courts, Police Stations, Lawyers Offices

2.4 The differences of Consecutive, Simultaneous and Liaison

  1. Liaison

A liaison interpreter acts as an intermediary between two people, or small groups of people, who speak different languages and who often come from different cultures. The interpreter must be familiar with the subject being discussed. It is rather a spontaneous and flexible type of interpreting used to facilitate communication.

Unlike consecutive interpreting, the speaker during liaison interpretation uses short phrases or sentences. This means that he must take breaks long enough for the interpreter to provide translation in targeted language without notes and without the risk of omitting any details or distorting the meaning of the primary information.

Due to the high level of accuracy and the conditions of liaison interpreting it is mostly used everywhere, where high attention to details is required, for example in court during the hearing of witnesses or experts and wherever it is difficult to take notes or where the speech is accompanied by a presentation. It can be also useful during legal consultation, guest relations and business or diplomatic meetings.

2. Simultaneous

Simultaneous interpreting, as the name would suggest, occurs in close time proximity to the speech of the original speaker. It is provided continuously and in a smooth and consistent flow. Simultaneous interpreting, also sometimes referred to as conference interpreting, requires specialized equipment (headsets or earpieces for the audience) as well as control units and soundproof booths for the interpreters. This is the form of interpreting used at the UN and most international organizations as well as most major international conferences and business meetings.

Simultaneous interpretation is normally used at multi-lingual conferences. It is important to know that simultaneous interpretation is so strenuous that no interpreter should work for more than 30 minutes in one go. This means that simultaneous interpreters always work in teams of two, or, depending on the length of the conference and the complexity of the topic, three colleagues.

3. Consecutive

Consecutive interpreting is employed mainly during meetings between reduced numbers of participants. Without headphones, the consecutive interpreter takes notes and interprets the speakers’ orations when the speaker finishes speaking or pauses. In consecutive interpreting, speeches, or parts of them, may vary between five to twenty minutes. Consecutive interpretation means that the interpreter takes notes while the speaker is talking – although the speaking time should not exceed 15 minutes. After the speaker has finished his or her contribution, the interpreter will render this part of the speech in the other language.

Apart from a notepad, a pen and, if applicable, a microphone, no technical equipment is needed for consecutive interpretation. This mode of interpreting can be used, for example, for negotiations or receptions where the conference host does not want to set up an interpreting booth.

2.5 The Similarities of Consecutive, Simultaneous and Liaison

There are three modes of interpreting translation such as, Consecutive, Simultaneous and Liaison

TEACHING WRITING TO CHILDREN

TEACHING WRITING TO CHILDREN

 

  1. Definition of writing

Writing is a creative process of expressing ideas in the form of written language for the purpose, for example, inform, persuade, or entertain using written language as a media communication. But writing is not easy because writing has certain characteristics which seem to make it difficult for pupils to get to grips with, especially for younger learner. Besides, writing is a good thing because it lets pupils express their personalities. Writing activities help to consolidate learning in the other skill areas. Balanced activities train the language and help aid memory.

  1. The purpose of writing

The purpose of writing is to enable students in writing English simply by meaningful words and sentences. Cause of that, there are some important points you should consider in learning activities such as: spelling, punctuation marks, choice of words, conjunctive, sentence structure and topic sentence.

 

2.1 Controlled writing activities

          In general, controll activities are being done to practice the language and concentration is on the language itself. Besides, the teacher still controls their pupils’ activities. Controlled activities consist of 6 activities the following are:

  1. a.      Straight copying

              Copying is a fairly obvious starting point for writing. It is an activity which gives the teacher the chance to reinforce language that has been presented orally or through reading. It is a good idea to ask pupils to read aloud quietly to themselves when they are copying the words because this helps them to see the connection between the written and the spoken word. For children who find even straight copying difficult, you can start them off by tracing words.

  1. b.      Matching

                  Matching is activity by asking pupils to match pictures and texts, or to choose which sentence they want to write about the text. For example, pupils might choose from the three possibilities about this picture:

Write one sentence:

  • She likes cooking
  • She is a good cook
  • She is making a noodle.
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  1. c.       Organizing and copying

              Organizing and copying are activity how to organize a sentence and copy it into a correct sentence. For example, ask the pupils to complete Kete’s letter.

  1. d.      Delayed copying

                  Delayed copying is activities to know the ability of pupils in memorizing familiar sentences. You can do delayed copying, which is fun to do in class, for training short term visual memory. Write a short, familiar sentence on the board; give the pupils a few seconds to look at it. And then rub it out and see if the pupils can write it down. Please note that this type of activity should not be used as a test.

  1. e.       Copying book

It is useful for pupils to have a copying book where they can copy new vocabulary, a little dialogue, something you want them to remember or whatever. Most pupils will keep to what you ask them to copy, but they should be free to copy things from the textbook, the notice board and from other pupils. Some pupils will copy whole stories. If they have the time to do it, let them.

  1. f.       Dictation

Dictation is a very safe of exercise if you can keep the language elementary and simple, and because you, the teacher, are providing the actual language as well as the context. For young learners, dictations should:

  • Be short
  • Be made up of sentences which can be said in one breath
  • Have a purpose, and be connected to work which has gone before or comes after
  • Be read or said at normal speed.

For example: “Maria has a baker’s hat. She’s going to bring it to class tomorrow. We’re going to have a baker’s shop”.

2.2 Guided written activities

          In guided written activities, the teachers as a guide who give direction to the pupils without speaking and explaining not too much. Therefore, teacher only give the examples or show something real that relate to the materials. So, pupils should be more active than teacher. There are 3 activities in guided written, the following are:

  1. a.      Fill-in exercises

Fill-in exercises are useful activities that can be used to focus on specific language items, like prepositions or question forms. Try to avoid exercises which have no meaning at all-exercise which give you sentences.

  1. b.      Dictation

You might like to try dictating only half a sentence, and asking pupils to complete it in their own way. For example:

I like……………………

I hate…………………..

I love…………………..

  1. c.       Letters/cards/invitations

Letter writing seems to be a popular language class activity, and it is indeed a useful way of getting pupils to write short meaningful pieces of writing. Ideally, letters are written to be sent, but you can have pupils writing to each other and sending their letters via the classroom postman.

 

 

2.3 Free writing activities

  • In free activities the language is the pupils own language, no matter what their level is. The teacher should be the initiator and helper, and of course is responsible for seeing that the task can be done by the pupils at that level.
  • The teacher should try to look at the work being done, perhaps at the rough copy stage, correct mistakes and suggest possible ideas, words, etc.
  • The teacher should give as much help as possible to the pupils both before the actual writing task begins and while the writing is going on.
  • The teacher and the pupil can see how much progress is being made if everything a pupil has written is in one place.

There are 5 activities in free writing, the following are:

 

  1. a.      Pre-writing activities

 

Pre-writing activities are designed to give them language, ideas and encouragement before they settle down to the writing itself.

 

  • Taking about the subject

A short simple conversation about the subject can be enough to get ideas going and collect thoughts. With the five to seven year olds, you might start them off by simply asking a question:

“What did you do last night?’ and writing some of the answers on the board: “watched TV, played football, had supper, etc.

 

  • Word stars

First, put the key word on the blackboard. You are going to write about pets, so you decide to use dog as your key word. Put the class into groups and ask them to write down all the words they can think about connected with dogs.  When all the groups have made their word starts, you can do one on the blackboard for everyone. This gives the whole class not only words, but also the ideas about what to write. For example:

 

 

 

 

 
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Vocabulary charts

In vocabulary charts, the teachers make or give simple drawings or pictures with vocabulary collections. The aim is to give the pupils as many words ideas as possible before they start on the actual writing tasks.

  • Topic vocabulary

Vocabulary can also be built up by collecting related words. You can use picture dictionaries as much as you can, but have your own dictionary too, you won’t always know the words either. Pupils do not have to remember all these words you are only collecting words to help them write their story.

 

  1. b.      Dialogues

The dialogues the children write function as basic communication at all levels if they are spoken before they are written and used as reading texts after they have been written. The dialogues can be guided, following a very strict and to the point, or they can be long and complicated.

  • Speech bubbles can be very useful for both

In speech bubbles the teachers can use simple dialogues for the pupils.

  • The following dialogues  is the result of pair work based on a model dialogue, but is clear from the type of language used that a lot of work has been done on spoken dialogues before this.
  • The dialogue below was also the result of pair work, but this time working on a given situation.

 

  1. c.       Descriptions

A description is a statement that describes someone or something or the process of describing. There are 2 types in descriptions, the following are:

  • Collages

A collage is usually a large piece of paper of a board which is made into a poster or a picture by sticking on illustrations, texts and other materials.

  • Picture descriptions

When you first prepare a piece of written work orally, then you must expect the language to reflect this. The descriptions of an untidy room on the following page was written by two older pupils in their third year of learning English, and we can see the effect of oral work in the question at the end of the description.

 

  1. d.      Letters

Letters is to imaginary people are not nearly as interesting or as much fun as letters to real pen-friends. Ideally, letters are written to someone. They can also be written to the teacher, and these letters should be answered without any comments on the language. Some teachers like to have this type of correspondence with their pupils regularly, just to see how they are getting on. But for pupils who are beyond the beginner level, this teacher pupil correspondence, which is private, may take the form of dairy instead of a series of letters.

  1. e.       Story

A story is an activity to write about something and the words to express what they want to say or a narrative description of past events. Writing group stories is a good idea since the actual writing can be shared, and re-writing is not such a burden. Make sure that pupils do lots of pre-writing.

 

 

 

 

PRONUNCIATION

PRONUNCIATION

 

  • Ø Why teach pronunciation?

Pronunciation is an integral part of foreign language learning since it directly affects learners’ communicative competence as well as performance. Foreign language instruction generally focuses on four main areas of development: listening, speaking reading and writing. Foreign language curricula emphasize pronunciation in the first year of study as it introduces the target language’s alphabet and sound system, but rarely continues this focus past the introductory level. Teaching pronunciation is important for us, such as:

  • • Intelligibility (the speaker produces sound patterns that are recognizable as English)
    • • Comprehensibility (the listener is able to understand the meaning of what is said)
    • • Interpretability (the listener is able to understand the purpose of what is said).

Mastering grammar, having a good knowledge of vocabulary, being able to read and write well, is all part of learning a language. However, not being able to pronounce words hugely hinders communication, especially since it is believed that, learners who are unable to pronounce words are also unable to understand them. This means that teaching pronunciation is an important area which should be dealt with regularly.

For example, a speaker might say It’s hot today as IS ho day. This is unlikely to be intelligible because of inaccurate sound, stress and intonation patterns. As a result, a listener would not find the speaker comprehensible, because meaning is not available. Because the speaker is incomprehensible, the listener would also not be able to interpret the utterance as an indirect request to open the window. Clear pronunciation is essential in spoken communication. Even where learners produce minor inaccuracies in vocabulary and grammar, they are more likely to communicate effectively when they have good pronunciation and intonation (Burns, 2003).

 

  • Ø What is sound?

–          Sound is a type of energy made by vibrations. Sound is made when air molecules vibrate and move in a pattern called waves, or sound waves.

–          Sound is produced by a rapid variation in the average density or pressure of air molecules above and below the current atmospheric pressure.

–          The sounds that we hear, from the voice of the person right next to you, to the music coming from your iPod earphones, to the crashing noise of shattered glass, all come from a vibrating source.

–          Another examples of sound: laugh, scream, yelling, radio

 

  • Ø What is stress?

We generally use the word stress when we feel that everything seems to have become too much. But stress here is pressure or tension exerted on a material object. In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence. The term is also used for similar patterns of phonetic prominence inside syllables. This simple sentence can have many levels of meaning based on the word you stress. Consider the meaning of the following sentences with the stressed word in bold. Read each sentence aloud and give a strong stress to the word in bold:

I don’t think he should get the job.
Meaning: Somebody else thinks he should get the job.

I don’t think he should get the job.
Meaning: It’s not true that I think he should get the job.

I don’t think he should get that job.
Meaning: That’s not really what I mean. OR I’m not sure he’ll get that job.

As you can see, there are many different ways this sentence can be understood. The important point to remember is that the true meaning of the sentence is also expressed through the stressed word or words.

 

  • Ø   What is intonation? Why teach it?
  • Intonation is about how we say things, rather than what we say. Without intonation, it’s impossible to understand the expressions and thoughts that go with words.
  • Intonation is a word used to refer to how a sentence sounds. How a sentence sounds if it’s a question sounds different from how a sentence sounds if it’s a statement. If you say a sentence out loud, first as a question and then as a statement, you’ll hear the difference in sound. Or Intonation refers to the raising and lowering of the tone of one’s voice. And intonation is the rising and falling of tone.
  • Example of intonation:

Say: ‘It’s raining’.

Now say it again using the same words, but giving it different meaning. You could say it to mean ‘What a surprise!’, or ‘How annoying! ‘Or ‘That’s great!’. There are many possibilities.

  • Intonation exists in every language, so the concept we’re introducing isn’t new. However, learners are often so busy finding their words that intonation suffers. Yet intonation can be as important as word choice we don’t always realize how much difference intonation makes:

–          Awareness of intonation aids communication.

–          Incorrect intonation can result in misunderstandings, speakers losing interest or even taking offence! As important as word choice. Why teach intonation.

 Though it’s unlikely our learners will need native speaker level pronunciation, what they do need is greater awareness of intonation to facilitate their speaking and listening.

 

  • Ø How to help students in pronunciation?

Good pronunciation comes from a lot of technical knowledge on the part of the teacher about placement of the mouth, etc. Language learning needs a lot of practice and both mechanical and meaningful practice lead to improved pronunciation. Only through practice will a skill become automatic and drill-like activities are not always considered interesting. There are many ways to help our students in pronunciation, such as:

–       Listen and repeat

This will be the first and most common method of teaching sound specific pronunciation in English. You say the target sound and have your students repeat it after you. If you are teaching a long word with multiple syllables, start with the final syllable of the word and have your class repeat it. Then add the penultimate syllable and say the two together having your class repeat after you. Work backwards in this manner until your students are able to pronounce the entire word correctly.

–       Isolation

When working on a specific sound, it may help your students to isolate that particular sound from any others. Instead of presenting a certain sound as part of a complete word in English, you can simply pronounce the sound itself repeatedly. When you do, your students can say it along with you repeatedly, focusing on the small nuances in the correct pronunciation and also engraining the sound pattern into their minds. This is especially helpful when you have several students struggling with a specific sound delineation.

–       Minimal pairs

Minimal pairs are a great way to focus pronunciation on just one sound. If you are not familiar with linguistics, a minimal pair is two words that vary in only one sound. For example, rat and rate are minimal pairs because only the vowel sound differs between the two words. Additional minimal pairs are pin and pen, dim and dime, and bat and pat. You can use minimal pairs to help your students with their pronunciation by focusing on one particular sound. In addition to the pronunciation benefits, your students will also expand their vocabularies when you teach minimal pairs.

–       Record and replay

At times, your students may think they are using correct pronunciation when in fact they are saying something quite different. By using a device to record what your students are actually saying, you have empirical data to play back for each person. Encourage him to listen to what he actually said rather than what he thinks he said. You may also want him to compare a recording of a native speaker against his recording of himself. In this way, your students will have a more objective understanding of their true pronunciation and be able to take steps to correct it.

–       Use a mirror

Giving your students a chance to view their own physical movements while they are working on their pronunciation can be of great value. You can always encourage your students to look at your mouth and face as you pronounce certain sounds, but they will also benefit from seeing what movements they are making as they speak. Sometimes, becoming aware of the physical movements involved in pronunciation is all your students will need to correct pronunciation issues of which they are unaware.

–        Phonetics

When your students are facing a pronunciation challenge, it could be that English spelling is adding to the mystery of the spoken word. Instead of spelling new vocabulary out on the white board, try using phonetic symbols to represent the sounds (rather than the alphabet to represent the spelling). If you were to use phonetic symbols, the word seat would be written /si:t/ and eat would be written /i:t/. You can find a list of the phonetic symbols on several websites or in introductory linguistics books. Once you teach your students the International Phonetic Alphabet, you can use those symbols any time you introduce new vocabulary to your students.

–       Show a vowel diagram

If you are using phonetic symbols to help you teach vowel pronunciation, a diagram of where each English vowel sound is produced can be eye opening for your students. Print copies to distribute in class or show your students where they can find this diagram online. When students know which area of the mouth in which they should be making their sounds, they may have an easier time distinguishing between similar sounds because they are produced in different areas of the mouth.

–       Sing a song

Songs and raps in the target language can be used effectively as pronunciation models. Students listen to the song or rap, the teacher identifies a repetitive structure as a model and students write their own lines and practice them. The raps or songs can then be peer-assessed with a focus on pronunciation.

–       Tongue twisters

Though tongue twisters are probably more popular for practicing consonant pronunciation, they are still a valuable resource for vowel practice. Not only are they a challenge to your students’ pronunciation abilities, they add an element of fun to the classroom that can help your students relax and therefore free them to be more daring in their attempts at English.

–       Practice

Provide opportunities for students to practice individually, in pairs and small groups. Tongue twisters and rhymes are great for starters, with students listening to a model and then practicing in pairs to encourage self and peer correction. Make practicing pronunciation into a game. Play vocabulary games like naught and crosses with two teams or in pairs and make accurate pronunciation one of the criteria for scoring points.

 

  • Ø What aspects of pronunciation to focus on?

Learning pronunciation will elevate their level of speaking and undoubtedly will improve their listening skills. Before teaching pronunciation, many aspects should be taken into account. Among the most important ones are the roles of the teacher and the learner. Needless to say, the overviews of the various aspects of English pronunciation are sounds, stress, rhythm and intonation is essential.

We can say there are at least three aspects to developing good pronunciation:

  • The ability to recognize the sound or pronunciation feature when native speakers produce it.
  • The ability to recognize by yourself whether you are pronouncing something clearly (“self-monitoring”).
  • The ability to produce the sound or desired pronunciation feature in your speech.

It will be helpful for you in working on your pronunciation to focus on all three of these areas.

Practice target areas of pronunciation in a variety of contexts:

  • practice specific words
  • practice with sentences which include the target aspect of pronunciation
  • practice with paragraphs
  • practice in free conversation

But in speaking activity, the pronunciations focus on your students’ intonation. Intonation is the rising and falling of tone. Without intonation, it’s impossible to understand the expressions and thoughts that go with words. Listen to somebody speaking without paying attention to the words, the ‘melody’ you hears is the intonation.

 

  • Ø Pronunciation exercises

 a. Minimal Pairs: minimal pairs are pairs of words that only differ in one feature. For example: ship- sheep/ loose-lose. Minimal pairs can be used to focus on differences in vowel or consonant sounds. The teacher writes a long list of contrasted words on the blackboard.  Students draw two columns in a notebook. They write one sound at the top of one column and the other sound at the top of the other. They have to write the list of contrasted words down in the correct column.

b. Missing words: sometimes the teacher wants to practice a difficult sound. In this case she/he can say short sentences or phrases in which one word is missing. That missing word contains that specific difficult sound.

  • For example:

A boy and a ——.

First, second and ———-

A pigeon is a kind of ———.

 

 c. Making sentences: By using Bowen‘s technique the teacher can provide lots of meaningful practice of English sounds. The teacher writes a list of minimal pairs and students write sentences by using those words. For example: Thin-tin, sit-seat

  • He is thin.
  • He has tin.
  • Don’t sit on that seat.

 

  • Ø Some technique in teaching pronunciation
    • The communicative approach, which took hold in the 1980a and is currently dominant in language teaching, holds that since the primary purpose of language is communication, using language to communicate should be central in all classroom language instruction.
    • The goal of teaching pronunciation to such learners is not to make then sound like native speakers of English. There are some techniques in teaching pronunciation:
  1. Listen and imitate

A technique used in the direct method in which students listen to a teacher, provided model a repeat or imitate it. This technique has been enhanced by the use of tape recorders, language labs and video recorders.

2. Phonetic training

Use of articulatory descriptions, articulatory diagrams, and a phonetic alphabet (a technique from the Reform Movement, which may involve doing phonetic transcription as well as reading phonetically transcribed text).

3. Minimal pair drills

A technique introduced during the audio lingual era to help students distinguish between similar and problematic sound in the target language through listening discrimination and spoken practice.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IMPERATIVE SENTENCE

IMPERATIVE SENTENCE

 

  • Imperatives are verbs used to give orders, commands, warning or instructions, and to make a request.

For example:

–      Give me that tape, please!

To make the imperative, use the infinitive of the verb without “to”.

–      Come here!

–      Sit down!

To make a negative, put “do not” or “don’t” before the verb.

For examples:

–      Don’t go!

–      Do not walk on the grass.

You can also use “let’s” before the verb if you are including yourself in the imperative. The negative of “let’s” is “let’s not”.

For examples:

–      Let’s stop now.

–      Let’s not tell her about it.

  1. Orders

Adults do not usually give each other orders, unless they are in a position of authority. However, adults can give orders to children and to animals. The intonation of an order is important, each word is stressed and the tone falls at the end of the sentence.

 

 

For example:

–      Sit down now!

2. Warning

You can use the imperative to warn someone of danger. All the words in the warning are stressed, but the last word has a higher tone than the first word.

For examples:

–      Don’t cross!

–      Look out!

3. Advice

When you give advice using the imperative, the words are stressed normally.

For examples:

–      Don’t drink alcohol.

–      Don’t eat heavy meals.

4. Request

You can also use the imperative to make a request, but you should use a polite word before the verb.

For examples:

–      Please wait here.

–      Please don’t smoke here.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Example of announcement that using imperative sentence.

 

 
   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

IMPERATIVE SENTENCE

IMPERATIVE SENTENCE

 

  • Imperatives are verbs used to give orders, commands, warning or instructions, and to make a request.

For example:

–      Give me that tape, please!

To make the imperative, use the infinitive of the verb without “to”.

–      Come here!

–      Sit down!

To make a negative, put “do not” or “don’t” before the verb.

For examples:

–      Don’t go!

–      Do not walk on the grass.

You can also use “let’s” before the verb if you are including yourself in the imperative. The negative of “let’s” is “let’s not”.

For examples:

–      Let’s stop now.

–      Let’s not tell her about it.

  1. Orders

Adults do not usually give each other orders, unless they are in a position of authority. However, adults can give orders to children and to animals. The intonation of an order is important, each word is stressed and the tone falls at the end of the sentence.

 

 

For example:

–      Sit down now!

2. Warning

You can use the imperative to warn someone of danger. All the words in the warning are stressed, but the last word has a higher tone than the first word.

For examples:

–      Don’t cross!

–      Look out!

3. Advice

When you give advice using the imperative, the words are stressed normally.

For examples:

–      Don’t drink alcohol.

–      Don’t eat heavy meals.

4. Request

You can also use the imperative to make a request, but you should use a polite word before the verb.

For examples:

–      Please wait here.

–      Please don’t smoke here.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  • Example of announcement that using imperative sentence.